Copper and copper alloys are widely used in a variety of products that enable and enhance our everyday lives. They have excellent electrical and thermal conductivities, exhibit good strength and formability, have outstanding resistance to corrosion and fatigue, and are generally nonmagnetic. They can be readily soldered and brazed, and many can be welded by various gas, arc and resistance methods. They can be polished and buffed to almost any desired texture and luster. Pure copper is used extensively for electrical wire and cable, electrical contacts and various other parts that are required to pass electrical current. Coppers and certain brasses, bronzes and copper nickels are used extensively for automotive radiators, heat exchangers, home heating systems, solar collectors, and various other applications requiring rapid conduction of heat across or along a metal section. Because of their outstanding ability to withstand corrosion, coppers, brasses, bronzes and copper nickels are also used for pipes, valves and fittings in systems carrying potable water, process water or other aqueous fluids, and industrial gases. Copper alloys are also ideally suited where it is important to minimize bacterial* levels on touch surfaces. Because of their inherent ability to kill 99.9% of bacteria* within two hours, more than 280 copper alloys have been granted public health registration by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This unprecedented registration recognizes copper’s inherent ability to continually kill bacteria* between regular cleanings, and aids in reducing infection-causing bacteria* on touch surfaces in hospitals, schools, offices and other public establishments.